Rocks shape the landscape and direct its watercourses. A billion years of history at one of the earth's busiest tectonic intersections left a fascinating array rocks beneath Lakes to Locks Passage. Heat-forged mountains surround Lake George. Valuable slate formations straddle the Vermont-New York border. Vermont marble and New York blue limestone flank Lake Champlain.
Rivers and streams link the countryside with the main waterway. Adirondack rivers bound down steep slopes following geological fault lines. Vermont streams probe far across the rich farmland formed at the bottom of an ancient sea. Lake George and Lake Champlain, and the course followed by the Champlain Canal, are a legacy of glaciers carving deep paths and filling them with huge lakes. Plants, animals and people have built their lives on these foundations.